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Images in Tables
I use the following method, which seems to work well with tables:
Once you have decided where the picture is to go, click on the drop down list beside the import picture button and choose "Insert Empty Picture Frame". You can size to suit the cell. Once sized right click on frame and choose Frame Properties, Scale to Minimum Fit. Once this is done you can copy to another cell by holding down Ctrl and dragging copy to new location. Once the frame is as you want it, click on the little icon/button at bottom RHS to add/change picture. Choose your picture and it should appear sized and scaled to suit the cell. This all sound a bit long winded but only takes a few seconds. Once the picture is in place you can do all the usual hyperlink/light box stuff too. You can create a group and lock in place once your table/cells are finished.
Hope that helps.
Go to for Interactive Guide to Typography - http://www.kaikkonendesign.fi/typography/
Typography Considerations for Online Reading.
Text is very important and getting it right can make or break a website.
The art of typography can be quite in-depth but I'll try and give a few pointers to at least help with the ' correct etiquette' regarding the placement of text and headings etc.
This is crucial, if the reader cannot read the text or finds it difficult, they won't read, so what's the point in putting any text on the web page?
People tend to see text in patterns before they see the text, they see the structure and contrast of the page and if it follows a familiar format they are more likely to read what you want to say.
There are a few elements to text that really help to make it legible. The use of Fonts, how Margins assist text to co-exist with the rest of the page, Headings and the correct placement and of course the content itself. All of these things must exist to create text in harmony with its surroundings.
Do I Justify, Center, Left justify or Right justify?
well you could do a bit of all of them but I guarantee you it won't look pretty. Blocks of justified text can create 'rivers' paths of white space that stand out within the text and turn text into a map of the Mississippi. Center? well it all comes down to how you read and if you have uneven edges at the start it makes it harder to read, same goes for right justified text although I've never really found a convincing reason to ever use right justified text, so that leaves good old left justified and as we read from left to right in the western world it seems a good place to start.
As a rule of thumb, whatever your block of text is justified as so should your headings, its all to do with that predictable thing I was talking about earlier.
Something most people will never consider is the length of a text line... why? well who really cares? good web designers and typographers certainly do, long lines of text are awkward to read, have you ever wondered why books are the size they are?
well, to read one actually narrows one's vision to a focus point, that focus is about 3-4 inches; (I bet you've just measured a book page haven't you lol!)
To test this get some text and make one paragraph long say 800 pixels and the other about 400 pixels wide, now read and see which you find more comfortable.
The vertical bits between text, the standard nowadays for indicating a new paragraph is a blank line; as I am doing in this post, but it could also be done using indents, so one would indent the first line of a paragraph to indicate its beginning.
Knowing what to use and when is a tough question to answer, a lot of the typefaces used today were originally designed for print not screen a case in point is Times New Roman (TNR), although there are some typefaces designed for web/screen use, verdana, tahoma are just two of them. Using TNR isn't a bad thing especially if people are going to print out the text, it really depends on how the text is going to read. This section is too big to discuss fully so I'm leaving it at that for now.
This is subject but important, because getting this right also helps with the display of the web page. Windows default ppi is 96 while on a mac its 72ppi this doesn't seem to important until you start to use smaller fonts, on a windows system the text would be readable but on a mac it would probably be unreadable. That could cut a lot of readers out of the loop, not really a good idea. Type size is measured in points in most programs, although there are other options like em and pixel, most people will understand what '12 point font' means.
How to emphasize text, I always stay away from the underline, mainly because people get it confused with web links, italics offer a distinction, listing books within text is a good use of italics. Bold text is best used for headings and subheadings. Coloured text is another awkward choice, staying away from the weblink defaults of blue and violet help to distinguish its reason for use although again I think it's power is minimal for emphasis, due to the readers potential for thinking its a link.
Capital letters are not really an acceptable emphasis, and can actually be seen as ‘shouting’ this is a perceived action as viewed by most Internet savvy users.
Spacing and indentation are good ways to emphasis text, look at bulleted text for an example of indented emphasis.
There is more to all of this and the sections could be a lot more detailed but I just wanted to give you some idea of how text could be formatted to give the reader a better experience.
My brain has gone dead now so I'll stop typing
Google’s algorithms balance external ranking factors with statistical analysis of the page text to determine relevance and search ranking. Google’s fundamental idea is similar to peer citations in academic publications. Every year thousands of science papers are published: How can you tell which articles are the best? You look for those that are most frequently cited (“linked”) by other published papers. Important science papers get cited a lot. Useful web sites get linked a lot.
Focus on your titles and keywords
The ideal optimized web page has a clear editorial content focus, with the key words or phrases present in these elements of the page, in order of importance:
Page titles: titles are the most important element in page topic relevance; they also have another important role in the web interface—the page title becomes the text of bookmarks users make for your page
Major headings at the top of the page (<h1>, <h2>, and so on)
The first several content paragraphs of the page
The text of links to other pages: link text tells a search engine that the linked words are important; “Click here” gives no information about the destination content, is a poor practice for markup and universal usability, and contributes nothing to the topical information of the page
The alternate text for any relevant images on the page: accurate, carefully crafted alternate text for images is essential to universal usability and is also important if you want your images to appear in image search results such as Google Images and Yahoo! Images; the alternate text of the image link is the primary way search engines judge the topical relevance of an image
The html file name and the names of directories in your site: for example, the ideal name for a page on Bengal tigers is “bengal-tigers.html”
Note that the singular and plural forms of words are different keywords, and adjust your keyword strategy accordingly. Thus “tiger” and “tigers” are different keywords. Search engines are not sensitive to letter case, so “Tiger” and “tiger” are exactly equivalent. Also think about context when you work out your content keywords. Search engines are the dumbest readers on the web: they don’t know anything about anything, and they bring no context or knowledge of the world to the task of determining relevance. A search crawler doesn’t know that Bengal tigers are carnivores, that they are large cats of the genus Panthera, or that they are also called Royal Bengal Tigers. Your optimized page on Bengal tigers might use all the following keywords and phrases, because a user could search with any of these terms:
“Royal Bengal Tiger”
“Panthera tigris tigris”
“Panthera tigris bengalensis”
If your site has been on the web long enough to get indexed by Google or Yahoo!, use your chosen keywords to do searches in the major search engines and see how your site ranks in the search results for each phrase. You can also use the web itself to find data on the keywords and phrases that readers are currently using to find your site. Both Google and Yahoo! offer many tools and information sources to webmasters who want more data on how their site is searched, what keywords readers use to find their site, and how their site ranks for a given keyword or phrase:
Google Webmaster Tools
Google Adwords, Keyword Tool
Yahoo! Site Explorer
Even in well-written content with a tight topical focus, the primary topical keywords are normally a small percentage of the words on the page, typically 5 to 8 percent. Because of the widespread practice of “keyword spamming” (adding hidden or gratuitous repetitions of keywords on a page to make the content seem more relevant), search engines are wary of pages where particular keywords appear with frequencies of over 10 percent of the word count. It is important to make sure your keywords appear in titles and major headings, but don’t load in meaningless repetitions of your keywords: you’ll degrade the quality of your pages and could lose search ranking because of the suspiciously high occurrence of your keywords.
Keyword placement on the page
There is some evidence that placing your keywords near the top and left edges of the page will (slightly) benefit your overall ranking, because, on average, those areas of pages are the most likely to contain important content keywords. The top and left edges also fall within the heaviest reader scanning zones as measured by eye-tracking research, so there are human interface advantages to getting your keywords into this page zone, too. For optimal headings, try to use your keywords early in the heading language. Search crawlers may not always scan the full text of very long web pages, so if you have important content near the bottom of long pages, consider creating a page content menu near the top of the page. This will help readers of long pages and will give you an opportunity to use keywords near the page top that might otherwise be buried at the bottom (fig. 5.9).
Use plain language and keywords in file and directory names
Use your major topical keywords in your file and site directory names. This helps a bit with search optimization, and it makes the organization of your site much more understandable to both your users and your partners on the web site development team. Always use hyphens in web file names, since hyphens are “breaking” characters that divide words from each other. For example, in the file name “bengal-tiger-habitat.html” a search engine will see the words “Bengal,” “tiger,” and “habitat” because the words are separated by hyphens. If you use “nonbreaking” underscore characters as dividers or run the words together, the file name is seen as one long nonsense word that won’t contribute to page ranking. The file names “bengal_tiger_habitat.html” or “bengaltigerhabitat.html” are equivalent, and neither is ideal for most search engines.
Both your readers and search crawlers can easily make sense of plain-language directory and file names in your urls:
Requesting links from other web sites
Requesting links from established, high-traffic web sites is crucial to search optimization, particularly for new web sites. These links weigh heavily in search engine rankings, so they are well worth the effort to establish. If you work within a larger company or enterprise, start by contacting the people responsible for your primary company web site and make sure that your new site is linked from any site maps, index pages, or other enterprise-wide directory of major pages. Although it may not always be possible, the ideal link would be from your company’s home page to your new site. Smart company web managers often reserve a spot on the home page for such “what’s new” link requests because they know how to leverage their existing search traffic on the home page to promote a new site. The link does not have to be permanent: a few weeks of visibility after your site launches and gets an initial pass from the major search crawlers will be enough to get you started.
Your company’s central web organization will also likely be responsible for any local web search capabilities, and you want to be sure they are aware of your new web site, particularly if it is housed on a new web server. Create a standard press release or email announcement, and send the announcement to colleagues, professional associations, partner companies, and the local press, requesting that related sites link to your site. The more links your site gets from established, high-traffic sites that already rank well in Google or Yahoo!, the faster your site will climb the search results rankings.
Submitting your new site to the major search engines
By far the best way to get your site listed in the major search engines is to request links from other existing sites that point to your new site. The two largest search engines offer pages that allow you to submit the url for a new web site, but there is no guarantee that the search crawlers will find your site immediately. It could take several weeks or more for them to visit your new site and index it for the first time.
Site submissions pages:
HTML meta tags
Meta tags are a great intellectual notion that has largely fallen victim to human nature. The basic idea is excellent: use a special html header designation called a “meta” tag to hold organized bits of meta-information (that is, information about information) to describe your page and site, who authored the page, and what the major content keywords are for your page. The information is there to describe the page to search engines but is not visible to the user unless he or she uses the browser “View Source” option to check the html code. Unfortunately, in the 1990s, search scammers began to use meta tags as a means to load in dozens or even hundreds of hidden keywords on a page, often in many repetitions, to bias the results of web searches. Because of these fraudulent practices, recent generations of search engine software either ignore meta tags or give them little weight in overall search rankings. Current search crawlers will also down-rank or ban pages that abuse meta tags, so the practice of abusing meta tags has become pointless.
Should you use meta tags on your pages? We think they are still a useful structured means to provide organized information about your site. And although search engines may not give heavy ranking weight to meta tag information, most search engines will grab the first dozen or so words of a “description” meta tag as the descriptive text that accompanies your page title in the search results listing.
The basic forms of meta tags are useful, straightforward to fill out, and cover all the basic information you might want to describe your page to a search engine:
<meta name="author" content="Patrick J. Lynch" />
<meta name="description" content="Personal web site of artist, author, designer and photographer Patrick J. Lynch." />
<meta name="keywords" content="web design, web style guide, Yale university, Patrick j. lynch" />
The bottom line on meta tags: they never hurt, they might help a little, and they are a simple way to supply structured meta-information about your page content.
Make your site easy to navigate
Basic navigation links are an important part of search optimization, because only through links can search crawlers find your individual pages. In designing your basic page layout and navigation, be sure you have incorporated links to your home page, to other major subdivisions of your site, and to the larger organization or company you work in. Remember, each link you create not only gives a navigation path to users and search engine crawlers but associates your local site with larger company or other general Internet sites that have much higher user traffic than your site. The more you use links to knit your site into your local enterprise site and related external sites, the better off you’ll be for search visibility.
Two kinds of site maps
In the context of search optimization, the term “site map” has several meanings, depending on its context:
Site map pages: most web site maps are ordinary web pages with lists of links to the major elements of your web site (fig. 5.10). These master lists of the major pages in your site are an excellent resource for search engine crawlers, and site map pages are a great way to ensure that every important page of your site is linked in a way that search crawlers and users can easily find. Site map or “index” pages are a common element of web sites, and users who prefer to browse through lists of links know to look for site map or index pages in a well-organized site. In the earlier days of the web you’d see site maps that were laid out as diagrammatic charts or visual maps of the site, but the highly visual site map metaphors have largely faded in favor of the much more efficient link lists.
xml site maps for search engines: the second common meaning for “site map” refers to a text file in xml format that sits at the level of your home page and informs web search crawlers about the major pages in your web site, how to find the pages, and how often the pages are likely to be updated (daily, weekly, monthly).
You should use both kinds of site maps to ensure maximum visibility of your site content.